Sudden infant death syndrome
|Sudden infant death syndrome|
|Other names||Cot death, crib death|
|Safe to Sleep logo|
|Symptoms||Death of a child less than one year of age|
|Risk factors||Sleeping on the stomach or side, overheating, exposure to tobacco smoke, bed sharing|
|Diagnostic method||No cause found after an investigation and autopsy|
|Differential diagnosis||Infections, genetic disorders, heart problems, child abuse|
|Prevention||Putting newborns on their back to sleep, pacifier, breastfeeding, immunization|
|Treatment||Support for families|
|Frequency||1 in 1,000–10,000|
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), also known as cot death or crib death, is the sudden unexplained death of a child of less than one year of age. Diagnosis requires that the death remain unexplained even after a thorough autopsy and detailed death scene investigation. SIDS usually occurs during sleep. Typically death occurs between the hours of 00:00 and 09:00. There is usually no noise or evidence of struggle. SIDS remains the leading cause of infant mortality in Western countries, contributing to half of all post-neonatal deaths.
The exact cause of SIDS is unknown. The requirement of a combination of factors including a specific underlying susceptibility, a specific time in development, and an environmental stressor has been proposed. These environmental stressors may include sleeping on the stomach or side, overheating, and exposure to tobacco smoke. Accidental suffocation from bed sharing (also known as co-sleeping) or soft objects may also play a role. Another risk factor is being born before 39 weeks of gestation. SIDS makes up about 80% of sudden and unexpected infant deaths (SUIDs). The other 20% of cases are often caused by infections, genetic disorders, and heart problems. While child abuse in the form of intentional suffocation may be misdiagnosed as SIDS, this is believed to make up less than 5% of cases.
The most effective method of reducing the risk of SIDS is putting a child less than one year old on their back to sleep. Other measures include a firm mattress separate from but close to caregivers, no loose bedding, a relatively cool sleeping environment, using a pacifier, and avoiding exposure to tobacco smoke. Breastfeeding and immunization may also be preventive. Measures not shown to be useful include positioning devices and baby monitors. Evidence is not sufficient for the use of fans. Grief support for families affected by SIDS is important, as the death of the infant is sudden, without witnesses, and often associated with an investigation.
Rates of SIDS vary nearly tenfold in developed countries from one in a thousand to one in ten thousand. Globally, it resulted in about 19,200 deaths in 2015, down from 22,000 deaths in 1990. SIDS was the third leading cause of death in children less than one year old in the United States in 2011. It is the most common cause of death between one month and one year of age. About 90% of cases happen before six months of age, with it being most frequent between two months and four months of age. It is more common in boys than girls. Rates of SIDS have decreased in areas with "safe sleep" campaigns by up to 80%.
SIDS is a diagnosis of exclusion and should be applied to only those cases in which an infant's death is sudden and unexpected, and remains unexplained after the performance of an adequate postmortem investigation, including:
- an autopsy (by an experienced pediatric pathologist, if possible);
- investigation of the death scene and circumstances of the death; and
- exploration of the medical history of the infant and family.
Australia and New Zealand are shifting to the term "sudden unexpected death in infancy" (SUDI) for professional, scientific, and coronial clarity.
The term SUDI is now often used instead of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) because some coroners prefer to use the term 'undetermined' for a death previously considered to be SIDS. This change is causing diagnostic shift in the mortality data.
By definition, SIDS deaths occur under the age of one year, with the peak incidence occurring when the infant is two to four months old. This is considered a critical period because the infant's ability to rouse from sleep is not yet mature.
The exact cause of SIDS is unknown. Although studies have identified risk factors for SIDS, such as putting infants to bed on their bellies, there has been little understanding of the syndrome's biological process or its potential causes. Deaths from SIDS are unlikely to be due to a single cause, but rather to multiple risk factors. The frequency of SIDS does appear to be influenced by social, economic, or cultural factors, such as maternal education, race or ethnicity, or poverty. SIDS is believed to occur when an infant with an underlying biological vulnerability, who is at a critical development age, is exposed to an external trigger. The following risk factors generally contribute either to the underlying biological vulnerability or represent an external trigger:
SIDS rates are higher in babies of mothers who smoke during pregnancy. Between no smoking and smoking 1 cigarette a day, on average, the risk doubles. About 22% of SIDS in the United States is related to maternal smoking. SIDS correlates with levels of nicotine and its derivatives in the baby. Nicotine and derivatives cause alterations in neurodevelopment.
Placing an infant to sleep while lying on the belly or side rather than on the back increases the risk for SIDS. This increased risk is greatest at two to three months of age. Elevated or reduced room temperature also increases the risk, as does excessive bedding, clothing, soft sleep surfaces, and stuffed animals in the bed. Bumper pads may increase the risk of SIDS due to the risk of suffocation. They are not recommended for children under one year of age, as this risk of suffocation greatly outweighs the risk of head bumping or limbs getting stuck in the bars of the crib.
Sharing a bed with parents or siblings increases the risk for SIDS. This risk is greatest in the first three months of life, when the mattress is soft, when one or more persons share the infant's bed, especially when the bed partners are using drugs or alcohol or are smoking. The risk remains, however, even in parents who do not smoke or use drugs. The American Academy of Pediatrics thus recommends "room-sharing without bed-sharing", stating that such an arrangement can decrease the risk of SIDS by up to 50%. Furthermore, the Academy has recommended against devices marketed to make bed-sharing "safe", such as "in-bed co-sleepers".
Room sharing as opposed to solitary sleeping is known to decrease the risk of SIDS.
Pregnancy and infant factors
SIDS rates decrease with increasing maternal age, with teenage mothers at greatest risk. Delayed or inadequate prenatal care also increases risk. Low birth weight is a significant risk factor. In the United States from 1995 to 1998, the SIDS death rate for infants weighing 1000–1499 g was 2.89/1000, while for a birth weight of 3500–3999 g, it was only 0.51/1000. Premature birth increases the risk of SIDS death roughly fourfold. From 1995 to 1998, the U.S. SIDS rate for births at 37–39 weeks of gestation was 0.73/1000, while the SIDS rate for births at 28–31 weeks of gestation was 2.39/1000.
Anemia has also been linked to SIDS (however, per item 6 in the list of epidemiologic characteristics below, extent of anemia cannot be evaluated at autopsy because an infant's total hemoglobin can only be measured during life). SIDS incidence rises from zero at birth, is highest from two to four months of age, and declines toward zero after the infant's first year.
Genetics plays a role, as SIDS is more prevalent in males. There is a consistent 50% male excess in SIDS per 1000 live births of each sex. Given a 5% male excess birth rate, there appears to be 3.15 male SIDS cases per 2 female cases, for a male fraction of 0.61. This value of 61% in the US is an average of 57% black male SIDS, 62.2% white male SIDS and 59.4% for all other races combined. Note that when multiracial parentage is involved, infant race is arbitrarily assigned to one category or the other; most often it is chosen by the mother. The X-linkage hypothesis for SIDS and the male excess in infant mortality have shown that the 50% male excess might be related to a dominant X-linked allele, occurring with a frequency of 1⁄3 that is protective against transient cerebral anoxia. An unprotected male would occur with a frequency of 2⁄3 and an unprotected female would occur with a frequency of 4⁄9.
Drinking of alcohol by parents is linked to SIDS. One study found a positive correlation between the two during New Years celebrations and weekends. Another found that alcohol use disorder was linked to a more than doubling of risk.
SIDS has been linked to cold weather, with this association believed to be due to over-bundling and thus, overheating. Premature babies are at four times the risk of SIDS, possibly related to an underdeveloped ability to automatically control the cardiovascular system.
A 1998 report found that antimony- and phosphorus-containing compounds used as fire retardants in PVC and other cot mattress materials are not a cause of SIDS. The report also states that toxic gas cannot be generated from antimony in mattresses and that babies suffered SIDS on mattresses that did not contain the compound.
Some conditions that are often undiagnosed and could be confused with or comorbid with SIDS include:
- medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency (MCAD deficiency);
- infant botulism;
- long QT syndrome (accounting for less than 2% of cases);
- Helicobacter pylori bacterial infections;
- shaken baby syndrome and other forms of child abuse;
- overlaying, child smothering during carer's sleep
For example, an infant with MCAD deficiency might die by "classical SIDS" if found swaddled and prone, with its head covered, in an overheated room where parents were smoking. Genes indicating susceptibility to MCAD and Long QT syndrome do not protect an infant from dying of classical SIDS. Therefore, the presence of a susceptibility gene, such as for MCAD, means the infant might have died either from SIDS or from MCAD deficiency. It is currently impossible for a pathologist to distinguish between them.
A 2010 study looked at 554 autopsies of infants in North Carolina that listed SIDS as the cause of death, and suggested that many of these deaths may have been due to accidental suffocation. The study found that 69% of autopsies listed other possible risk factors that could have led to death, such as unsafe bedding or sleeping with adults.
Several instances of infanticide have been uncovered in which the diagnosis was originally SIDS. The estimate of the percentage of SIDS deaths that are actually infanticide varies from less than 1% to up to 5% of cases.
Some have underestimated the risk of two SIDS deaths occurring in the same family; the Royal Statistical Society issued a media release refuting expert testimony in one UK case, in which the conviction was subsequently overturned.
A number of measures have been found to be effective in preventing SIDS, including changing the sleeping position to supine, breastfeeding, limiting soft bedding, immunizing the infant and using pacifiers. The use of electronic monitors has not been found to be useful as a preventative strategy. The effect that fans might have on the risk of SIDS has not been studied well enough to make any recommendation about them. Evidence regarding swaddling is unclear regarding SIDS. A 2016 review found tentative evidence that swaddling increases the risk of SIDS, especially among babies placed on their bellies or sides while sleeping.
Sleeping on the back has been found to reduce the risk of SIDS. It is thus recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics and promoted as a best practice by the US National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) "Safe to Sleep" campaign. The incidence of SIDS has fallen in a number of countries in which this recommendation has been widely adopted. Sleeping on the back does not appear to increase the risk of choking, even in those with gastroesophageal reflux disease. While infants in this position may sleep more lightly, this is not harmful. Sharing the same room as the parents but in a different bed may decrease the SIDS risk by half.
The use of pacifiers appears to decrease the risk of SIDS, although the reason is unclear. The American Academy of Pediatrics considers pacifier use to prevent SIDS to be reasonable. Pacifiers do not appear to affect breastfeeding in the first four months, even though this is a common misconception.
Product safety experts advise against using pillows, overly soft mattresses, sleep positioners, bumper pads (crib bumpers), stuffed animals, or fluffy bedding in the crib, and recommend instead dressing the child warmly and keeping the crib "naked."
Blankets or other clothing should not be placed over a baby's head.
Infants typically receive several vaccinations between the ages of 2 and 4 months, which is also the peak age for SIDS. Due to this coincidence, a number of studies have investigated the possible role of vaccinations as a cause of SIDS. These have found either no relation between vaccinations and SIDS, or a reduction of the risk of SIDS following vaccination. A 2007 meta-analysis found that vaccinations were associated with a halving of the risk of SIDS, and argued that immunisation should be a part of SIDS prevention campaigns.
Globally, SIDS resulted in about 22,000 deaths as of 2010[update], down from 30,000 deaths in 1990. Rates vary significantly by population from 0.05 per 1000 in Hong Kong to 6.7 per 1000 in Native Americans.
SIDS was responsible for 0.54 deaths per 1,000 live births in the US in 2005. It is responsible for far fewer deaths than congenital disorders and disorders related to short gestation, though it is the leading cause of death in healthy infants after one month of age.
SIDS deaths in the US decreased from 4,895 in 1992 to 2,247 in 2004, a 54% decrease. During a similar time period, 1989 to 2004, SIDS as the cause of death for sudden infant death (SID) decreased from 80% to 55%, a 31% decrease. According to John Kattwinkel, chairman of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Special Task Force on SIDS "A lot of us are concerned that the rate (of SIDS) isn't decreasing significantly, but that a lot of it is just code shifting".
In 2013, there were persistent disparities in SIDS deaths among racial and ethnic groups in the U.S. In 2009, the rates of death range from 20.3 per 100,000 live births for Asian/Pacific Islander to 119.2 per 100,000 live births for Native Americans/Alaska Native. African American infants have a 24% greater risk of having a SIDS-related death, compared to the U.S. population as a whole, and experience a 2.5 greater incidence of SIDS than in Caucasian infants. Rates are calculated per 100,000 live births to enable more accurate comparison across groups of different total population size.
Research suggests that factors which contribute more directly to SIDS risk—maternal age, exposure to smoking, safe sleep practices, etc.—vary by racial and ethnic group and therefore risk exposure also varies by these groups. Risk factors associated with prone sleeping patterns of African American families include mother's age, household poverty index, rural/urban status of residence, and infant's age. More than 50% of African American infants were placed in non-recommended sleeping positions, according to a 2012 study completed in South Carolina,  indicating that cultural factors can be protective as well as problematic.
- Central Americans and South Americans: 0.20
- Asian/Pacific Islanders: 0.28
- Mexicans: 0.24
- Puerto Ricans: 0.53
- Whites: 0.51
- African Americans: 1.08
- Native American: 1.24
Society and culture
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (November 2020)
The rate of SIDS varies vastly among different cultures and countries around the world, with SIDS rates lowest among Asian and Pacific Islander infants. Some evidence supports the hypothesis that SIDS is not an ancient phenomenon and that it appears more commonly in western societies.
Much of the popular media portrayals of infants shows them in non-recommended sleeping positions.
- "Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS): Overview". National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. 27 June 2013. Archived from the original on 23 February 2015. Retrieved 9 March 2015.
- Kinney HC, Thach BT (August 2009). "The sudden infant death syndrome". The New England Journal of Medicine. 361 (8): 795–805. doi:10.1056/NEJMra0803836. PMC 3268262. PMID 19692691.
- "What causes SIDS?". National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. 12 April 2013. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 9 March 2015.
- "Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Sudden Infant Death". Archived from the original on 18 March 2013. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
- Moon RY, Fu L (July 2012). "Sudden infant death syndrome: an update". Pediatrics in Review. 33 (7): 314–20. doi:10.1542/pir.33-7-314. PMID 22753789.
- "How can I reduce the risk of SIDS?". National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. 22 August 2014. Archived from the original on 27 February 2015. Retrieved 9 March 2015.
- "How many infants die from SIDS or are at risk for SIDS?". National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. 19 November 2013. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 9 March 2015.
- Optiz, Enid Gilbert-Barness, Diane E. Spicer, Thora S. Steffensen; foreword by John M. (2013). Handbook of pediatric autopsy pathology (Second ed.). New York, NY: Springer New York. p. 654. ISBN 9781461467113.
- Scheimberg, edited by Marta C. Cohen, Irene (2014). The Pediatric and perinatal autopsy manual. p. 319. ISBN 9781107646070.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- Raven, Leanne (2018), Duncan, Jhodie R.; Byard, Roger W. (eds.), "Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: History", SIDS Sudden Infant and Early Childhood Death: The Past, the Present and the Future, Adelaide (AU): University of Adelaide Press, ISBN 978-1-925261-67-7, PMID 30035955, retrieved 28 September 2020
- "Ways To Reduce the Risk of SIDS and Other Sleep-Related Causes of Infant Death". NICHD. 20 January 2016. Archived from the original on 7 March 2016. Retrieved 2 March 2016.
- Duncan JR, Byard RW (2018), Duncan JR, Byard RW (eds.), "Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: An Overview", SIDS Sudden Infant and Early Childhood Death: The Past, the Present and the Future, University of Adelaide Press, ISBN 9781925261677, PMID 30035964, retrieved 1 August 2019
- GBD 2013 Mortality Causes of Death Collaborators (January 2015). "Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013". Lancet. 385 (9963): 117–71. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61682-2. PMC 4340604. PMID 25530442.
- Wang, Haidong; Naghavi, Mohsen; Allen, Christine; Barber, Ryan M.; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Carter, Austin; Casey, Daniel C.; Charlson, Fiona J.; Chen, Alan Zian; Coates, Matthew M.; Coggeshall, Megan; Dandona, Lalit; Dicker, Daniel J.; Erskine, Holly E.; Ferrari, Alize J.; Fitzmaurice, Christina; Foreman, Kyle; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.; Fraser, Maya S.; Fullman, Nancy; Gething, Peter W.; Goldberg, Ellen M.; Graetz, Nicholas; Haagsma, Juanita A.; Hay, Simon I.; Huynh, Chantal; Johnson, Catherine O.; Kassebaum, Nicholas J.; Kinfu, Yohannes; et al. (October 2016). "Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015". Lancet. 388 (10053): 1459–1544. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(16)31012-1. PMC 5388903. PMID 27733281.
- Hoyert DL, Xu JQ (2012). "Deaths: Preliminary data for 2011" (PDF). National Vital Statistics Reports. 61 (6): 8. PMID 24984457. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 February 2014.
- "Sudden Unexpected Infant Death and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: About SUID and SIDS". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Archived from the original on 20 April 2016. Retrieved 16 April 2016.
- NZ Ministry of Health Archived December 12, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
- "Sudden Unexpected Infant Death" (PDF). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 May 2016. Retrieved 16 April 2016.
- Byard RW (2018), Duncan JR, Byard RW (eds.), "Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: Definitions", SIDS Sudden Infant and Early Childhood Death: The Past, the Present and the Future, University of Adelaide Press, ISBN 9781925261677, PMID 30035958, retrieved 1 August 2019
- Pickett KE, Luo Y, Lauderdale DS (November 2005). "Widening social inequalities in risk for sudden infant death syndrome". American Journal of Public Health. 95 (11): 1976–81. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2004.059063. PMC 1449471. PMID 16254231.
- Sullivan FM, Barlow SM (April 2001). "Review of risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome". Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology. 15 (2): 144–200. doi:10.1046/j.1365-3016.2001.00330.x. PMID 11383580.
- Office of the Surgeon General of the United States Report on Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke Archived 2011-08-06 at the Wayback Machine(PDF Archived 2009-02-05 at the Wayback Machine)
- Anderson TM, Lavista Ferres JM, Ren SY, Moon RY, Goldstein RD, Ramirez JM, Mitchell EA (April 2019). "Maternal Smoking Before and During Pregnancy and the Risk of Sudden Unexpected Infant Death". Pediatrics. 143 (4): e20183325. doi:10.1542/peds.2018-3325. PMC 6564075. PMID 30858347.
- Bajanowski T, Brinkmann B, Mitchell EA, Vennemann MM, Leukel HW, Larsch KP, Beike J (January 2008). "Nicotine and cotinine in infants dying from sudden infant death syndrome". International Journal of Legal Medicine. 122 (1): 23–8. doi:10.1007/s00414-007-0155-9. PMID 17285322. S2CID 26325523.
- Lavezzi AM, Corna MF, Matturri L (July 2010). "Ependymal alterations in sudden intrauterine unexplained death and sudden infant death syndrome: possible primary consequence of prenatal exposure to cigarette smoking". Neural Development. 5: 17. doi:10.1186/1749-8104-5-17. PMC 2919533. PMID 20642831.
- Carlin, Rebecca F.; Moon, Rachel Y. (1 February 2017). "Risk Factors, Protective Factors, and Current Recommendations to Reduce Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: A Review". JAMA Pediatrics. 171 (2): 175–180. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2016.3345. ISSN 2168-6211. PMID 27918760. S2CID 25569308.
- Moon RY, Horne RS, Hauck FR (November 2007). "Sudden infant death syndrome". Lancet. 370 (9598): 1578–87. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61662-6. PMID 17980736. S2CID 24624496.
- Fleming PJ, Levine MR, Azaz Y, Wigfield R, Stewart AJ (June 1993). "Interactions between thermoregulation and the control of respiration in infants: possible relationship to sudden infant death". Acta Paediatrica. 82 Suppl 389 (Suppl 389): 57–9. doi:10.1111/j.1651-2227.1993.tb12878.x. PMID 8374195. S2CID 44497216.
- McIntosh CG, Tonkin SL, Gunn AJ (December 2009). "What is the mechanism of sudden infant deaths associated with co-sleeping?". The New Zealand Medical Journal. 122 (1307): 69–75. PMID 20148046.
- Carpenter R, McGarvey C, Mitchell EA, Tappin DM, Vennemann MM, Smuk M, Carpenter JR (May 2013). "Bed sharing when parents do not smoke: is there a risk of SIDS? An individual level analysis of five major case-control studies". BMJ Open. 3 (5): e002299. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2012-002299. PMC 3657670. PMID 23793691.
- Moon RY (November 2011). "SIDS and other sleep-related infant deaths: expansion of recommendations for a safe infant sleeping environment". Pediatrics. 128 (5): 1030–9. doi:10.1542/peds.2011-2284. PMID 22007004.
- Young, Jeanine; Shipstone, Rebecca (2018), Duncan, Jhodie R.; Byard, Roger W. (eds.), "Shared Sleeping Surfaces and Dangerous Sleeping Environments", SIDS Sudden Infant and Early Childhood Death: The Past, the Present and the Future, Adelaide (AU): University of Adelaide Press, ISBN 978-1-925261-67-7, PMID 30035939, retrieved 11 January 2021
- Hauck FR, Thompson JM, Tanabe KO, Moon RY, Vennemann MM (July 2011). "Breastfeeding and reduced risk of sudden infant death syndrome: a meta-analysis". Pediatrics. 128 (1): 103–10. doi:10.1542/peds.2010-3000. PMID 21669892.
- Fleming PJ, Blair PS (February 2015). "Making informed choices on co-sleeping with your baby". BMJ. 350: h563. doi:10.1136/bmj.h563. PMID 25643704. S2CID 27309256.
- "Cdc Wonder". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 24 February 2010. Archived from the original on 24 April 2010. Retrieved 17 April 2010.
- Hunt CE (November 2007). "Small for gestational age infants and sudden infant death syndrome: a confluence of complex conditions". Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal and Neonatal Edition. 92 (6): F428-9. doi:10.1136/adc.2006.112243. PMC 2675383. PMID 17951549.
- Poets CF, Samuels MP, Wardrop CA, Picton-Jones E, Southall DP (April 1992). "Reduced haemoglobin levels in infants presenting with apparent life-threatening events--a retrospective investigation". Acta Paediatrica. 81 (4): 319–21. doi:10.1111/j.1651-2227.1992.tb12234.x. PMID 1606392. S2CID 33298390.
- Giulian GG, Gilbert EF, Moss RL (April 1987). "Elevated fetal hemoglobin levels in sudden infant death syndrome". The New England Journal of Medicine. 316 (18): 1122–6. doi:10.1056/NEJM198704303161804. PMID 2437454.
- Mage DT (1996). "A probability model for the age distribution of SIDS". J Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Infant Mortal. 1: 13–31.
- See CDC WONDER online database Archived 2010-04-24 at the Wayback Machine and "WHO Mortality Database". World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 27 June 2004. Retrieved 18 March 2006. for data on SIDS by gender in the US and throughout the world.
- Mage DT, Donner EM (September 2004). "The fifty percent male excess of infant respiratory mortality". Acta Paediatrica. 93 (9): 1210–5. doi:10.1080/08035250410031305. PMID 15384886.
- Behere SP, Weindling SN (2014). "Inherited arrhythmias: The cardiac channelopathies". Annals of Pediatric Cardiology. 8 (3): 210–20. doi:10.4103/0974-2069.164695. PMC 4608198. PMID 26556967.
- Van Nguyen JM, Abenhaim HA (October 2013). "Sudden infant death syndrome: review for the obstetric care provider". American Journal of Perinatology. 30 (9): 703–14. doi:10.1055/s-0032-1331035. PMID 23292938.
- Phillips DP, Brewer KM, Wadensweiler P (March 2011). "Alcohol as a risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)". Addiction. 106 (3): 516–25. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2010.03199.x. PMID 21059188.
- O'Leary CM, Jacoby PJ, Bartu A, D'Antoine H, Bower C (March 2013). "Maternal alcohol use and sudden infant death syndrome and infant mortality excluding SIDS". Pediatrics. 131 (3): e770-8. doi:10.1542/peds.2012-1907. PMID 23439895. S2CID 2523083.
- "NIH alerts caregivers to increase in SIDS risk during cold weather". National Institutes of Health (NIH). 3 September 2015. Retrieved 27 July 2018.
- Horne RS (May 2006). "Effects of prematurity on heart rate control: implications for sudden infant death syndrome". Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy. 4 (3): 335–43. doi:10.1586/14779072.4.3.335. PMID 16716094. S2CID 26689292.
- See FSID Press release.
- Weber MA, Klein NJ, Hartley JC, Lock PE, Malone M, Sebire NJ (May 2008). "Infection and sudden unexpected death in infancy: a systematic retrospective case review". Lancet. 371 (9627): 1848–53. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(08)60798-9. PMID 18514728. S2CID 8017934.
- Yang Z, Lantz PE, Ibdah JA (December 2007). "Post-mortem analysis for two prevalent beta-oxidation mutations in sudden infant death". Pediatrics International. 49 (6): 883–7. doi:10.1111/j.1442-200X.2007.02478.x. PMID 18045290. S2CID 25455710.
- Nevas M, Lindström M, Virtanen A, Hielm S, Kuusi M, Arnon SS, et al. (January 2005). "Infant botulism acquired from household dust presenting as sudden infant death syndrome". Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 43 (1): 511–3. doi:10.1128/JCM.43.1.511-513.2005. PMC 540168. PMID 15635031.
- Millat G, Kugener B, Chevalier P, Chahine M, Huang H, Malicier D, et al. (May 2009). "Contribution of long-QT syndrome genetic variants in sudden infant death syndrome". Pediatric Cardiology. 30 (4): 502–9. doi:10.1007/s00246-009-9417-2. PMID 19322600. S2CID 7473579.
- Stray-Pedersen A, Vege A, Rognum TO (October 2008). "Helicobacter pylori antigen in stool is associated with SIDS and sudden infant deaths due to infectious disease". Pediatric Research. 64 (4): 405–10. doi:10.1203/PDR.0b013e31818095f7. PMID 18535491.
- Bajanowski T, Vennemann M, Bohnert M, Rauch E, Brinkmann B, Mitchell EA (July 2005). "Unnatural causes of sudden unexpected deaths initially thought to be sudden infant death syndrome". International Journal of Legal Medicine. 119 (4): 213–6. doi:10.1007/s00414-005-0538-8. PMID 15830244. S2CID 34327548.
- Du Chesne A, Bajanowski T, Brinkmann B (1997). "[Homicides without clues in children]". Archiv für Kriminologie (in German). 199 (1–2): 21–6. PMID 9157833.
- Williams FL, Lang GA, Mage DT (April 2001). "Sudden unexpected infant deaths in Dundee, 1882-1891: overlying or SIDS?". Scottish Medical Journal. 46 (2): 43–7. doi:10.1177/003693300104600206. PMID 11394337. S2CID 29612195.
- "Cradle of Secrets". CharlotteObserver.com. Archived from the original on 11 August 2011. Retrieved 20 July 2011.
- Glatt J (2000). Cradle of Death: A Shocking True Story of a Mother, Multiple Murder, and SIDS. Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-312-97302-5.
- Havill A (2002). While Innocents Slept: A Story of Revenge, Murder, and SIDS. Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-312-97517-3.
- Hymel KP (July 2006). "Distinguishing sudden infant death syndrome from child abuse fatalities". Pediatrics. 118 (1): 421–7. doi:10.1542/peds.2006-1245. PMID 16818592.
- =1225 "About Statistics and the Law" =1225 Archived 2007-09-02 at the Wayback Machine (Website). Royal Statistical Society. (2001-10-23) Retrieved on 2007-09-22
- "Reduce the Risk of SIDS & Suffocation - AAP general recommendations". Healthy Children. 2017. Archived from the original on 13 December 2009.
- Pease AS, Fleming PJ, Hauck FR, Moon RY, Horne RS, L'Hoir MP, et al. (June 2016). "Swaddling and the Risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: A Meta-analysis". Pediatrics. 137 (6): e20153275. doi:10.1542/peds.2015-3275. PMID 27244847.
Limited evidence suggested swaddling risk increased with infant age and was associated with a twofold risk for infants aged >6 months.
- Bonafide CP, Jamison DT, Foglia EE (2017). "The Emerging Market of Smartphone-Integrated Infant Physiologic Monitors". JAMA. 317 (4): 353–354. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.19137. PMC 5310844. PMID 28118463.
- Mitchell EA (November 2009). "SIDS: past, present and future". Acta Paediatrica. 98 (11): 1712–9. doi:10.1111/j.1651-2227.2009.01503.x. PMID 19807704. S2CID 1566087.
- Mitchell EA, Hutchison L, Stewart AW (July 2007). "The continuing decline in SIDS mortality". Archives of Disease in Childhood. 92 (7): 625–6. doi:10.1136/adc.2007.116194. PMC 2083749. PMID 17405855.
- Jaafar SH, Ho JJ, Jahanfar S, Angolkar M (August 2016). "Effect of restricted pacifier use in breastfeeding term infants for increasing duration of breastfeeding". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2016 (8): CD007202. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007202.pub4. PMC 8520760. PMID 27572944.
- "What Can Be Done?". American SIDS Institute. Archived from the original on 21 June 2003.
- TASK FORCE ON SUDDEN INFANT DEATH SYNDROME (November 2016). "SIDS and Other Sleep-Related Infant Deaths: Updated 2016 Recommendations for a Safe Infant Sleeping Environment". Pediatrics. 138 (5): e20162938. doi:10.1542/peds.2016-2938. PMID 27940804. Archived from the original on 25 October 2016.
- "The Changing Concept of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: Diagnostic Coding Shifts, Controversies Regarding the Sleeping Environment, and New Variables to Consider in Reducing Risk". American Academy of Pediatrics. Archived from the original on 3 December 2008. Retrieved 6 November 2008.
- Müller-Nordhorn J, Hettler-Chen CM, Keil T, Muckelbauer R (January 2015). "Association between sudden infant death syndrome and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis immunisation: an ecological study". BMC Pediatrics. 15 (1): 1. doi:10.1186/s12887-015-0318-7. PMC 4326294. PMID 25626628.
- Mitchell EA, Stewart AW, Clements M (December 1995). "Immunisation and the sudden infant death syndrome. New Zealand Cot Death Study Group". Archives of Disease in Childhood. 73 (6): 498–501. doi:10.1136/adc.73.6.498. PMC 1511439. PMID 8546503.
- Fleming PJ, Blair PS, Platt MW, Tripp J, Smith IJ, Golding J (April 2001). "The UK accelerated immunisation programme and sudden unexpected death in infancy: case-control study". BMJ. 322 (7290): 822. doi:10.1136/bmj.322.7290.822. PMC 30557. PMID 11290634.
- Vennemann MM, Höffgen M, Bajanowski T, Hense HW, Mitchell EA (June 2007). "Do immunisations reduce the risk for SIDS? A meta-analysis". Vaccine. 25 (26): 4875–9. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2007.02.077. PMID 17400342.
- Hoffman HJ, Hunter JC, Damus K, Pakter J, Peterson DR, van Belle G, Hasselmeyer EG (April 1987). "Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis immunization and sudden infant death: results of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Cooperative Epidemiological Study of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome risk factors". Pediatrics. 79 (4): 598–611. PMID 3493477.
- Carvajal A, Caro-Patón T, Martín de Diego I, Martín Arias LH, Alvarez Requejo A, Lobato A (May 1996). "[DTP vaccine and infant sudden death syndrome. Meta-analysis]". Medicina Clinica. 106 (17): 649–52. PMID 8691909.
- "Vaccine Safety: Common Concerns: Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 28 August 2015. Archived from the original on 17 April 2016. Retrieved 15 April 2016.
- Lozano R, Naghavi M, Foreman K, Lim S, Shibuya K, Aboyans V, et al. (December 2012). "Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010". Lancet. 380 (9859): 2095–128. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61728-0. hdl:10536/DRO/DU:30050819. PMID 23245604. S2CID 1541253.
- Sharma BR (March 2007). "Sudden infant death syndrome: a subject of medicolegal research". The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology. 28 (1): 69–72. doi:10.1097/01.paf.0000220934.18700.ef. PMID 17325469. S2CID 37925269.
- Bowman, L; Hargrove, T. "Saving babies: Exposing Sudden Infant Death In America". DailyCamera.com. Archived from the original on 26 February 2009. Retrieved 30 September 2008.
- Powers, D. A.; Song, S. (2009). "Absolute change in cause-specific infant mortality for blacks and whites in the US: 1983–2002". Tion Research and Policy Review. 28 (6): 817–851. doi:10.1007/s11113-009-9130-0. S2CID 72279012.
- Pollack HA, Frohna JG (May 2001). "A competing risk model of sudden infant death syndrome incidence in two US birth cohorts". The Journal of Pediatrics. 138 (5): 661–7. doi:10.1067/mpd.2001.112248. PMID 11343040.
- Smith MG, Liu JH, Helms KH, Wilkerson KL (January 2012). "Racial differences in trends and predictors of infant sleep positioning in South Carolina, 1996-2007". Maternal and Child Health Journal. 16 (1): 72–82. doi:10.1007/s10995-010-0718-0. PMID 21165764. S2CID 2668964.
- Brathwaite-Fisher, T; Bronheim, S (2001). Cultural Competence and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and Other Infant Death: A Review of the Literature from 1990–2000. National Center for Cultural Competence, Georgetown University Center for Child and Human Development. Archived from the original (DOC) on 2010-06-12. Retrieved 2013-09-29.
- Burnett, Lynn Barkley (20 October 2019). "Sudden Infant Death Syndrome". Medscape. Archived from the original on 1 August 2016.
- Ottaviani, G. (2014). Crib death – Sudden infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). Sudden infant and perinatal unexplained death: the pathologist's viewpoint. Berlin Heidelberg, Germany: Springer. ISBN 978-3-319-08346-9.
- Joan Hodgman; Toke Hoppenbrouwers (2004). SIDS. Calabasas, Calif: Monte Nido Press. ISBN 978-0-9742663-0-5.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Lewak N (2004). "Book Review: SIDS". Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 158 (4): 405. doi:10.1001/archpedi.158.4.405. Archived from the original on 17 October 2008.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sudden infant death syndrome.|
- SIDS at Curlie
- "Sudden Unexpected Infant Death and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome". Data and Statistics. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 26 March 2017.